Parts of the Speech.
In order to understand what are the parts of the speech, we must refresh the concept most basic: sentence, which is the same in Spanish and English:
A sentence or speech is a group of words which expresses a complete thought and must contain, at least, a subject and a verb.
According to the English and Spanish Grammars, the parts of the speech can be nine and their basic definitions, which are also the same for both languages, are:
- Noun: Who executes or receives action.
- Pronoun: Word that replaces the noun.
- Verb: Word that describes the action.
- Adjective: Word that characterizes the noun.
- Adverb: Word that characterizes the verb, adjective or another adverb.
- Preposition: Word that helps relate nouns, verbs or phrases.
- Conjunction: Word that links nouns, sentences or phrases.
- Interjection: Word expressing some kind of feeling or emotion.
- Article: Word that in both, English and Spanish, is used to define a noun as determinate or indeterminate. In Spanish, it is additionally used to specify gender and noun number.
Examples of each part of the speech:
Each of these parts of the sentence and its rules of use are explained in detail in our corresponding Publications, but as examples to better understand their role in syntax, for both languages, we present the following Table:
|Parts of the Speech / Partes de la Oración|
|Noun/Nombre||Peter/Pedro, dog/perro, house/casa, stone/piedra, boy/niño, Mary/María|
|Pronoun/Pronombre||I/Yo, He/El, She/Ella, We/Nosotros, You/Ustedes, They/Ellos(as), You/Tú|
|Verb/Verbo||speak/hablar, read/leer, write/escribir, run/correr, walk/caminar, sing/cantar|
|Adjective/Adjetivo||big/grande, small/pequeño, pretty/linda, tall/largo, strong/fuerte, fast/rápido, well/bien|
|Adverb/Adverbio||almost/casi, far/lejos, really/realmente, rhythmically/rítmicamente, very/muy|
|Preposition/Preposición||since/desde, between/entre, until/hasta, in/en, over/sobre, without/sin|
|Conjunction/Conjunción||because/porque, nor/ni, for/para, but/pero, or/o, so/tan, while/mientras, and/y|
|Interjection/Interjección||yeah!/¡si!, hey!/¡oye!, ouch!/¡ay!, hello!/¡hola!, yummy!/¡ñamm!, wow!/¡guao!|
- There are countless of interjections in both languages, but by its feature of being an expression associated to emotions, many of them are common to the English, the Spanish and to all the others languages.
- The articles are a subject that deserves special attention since they represent one of the most notable differences between the English and the Spanish from the point of view of the grammatical syntax.
Building a Sentence.
An example of the concepts seen in the parts of the sentence and its uses is as follows:
|Mary has sung
María ha cantado
Noun + Verb
|Mary and You have sung
María y Tu han cantado
|Adding an Conjunction and a Pronoun
|Mary and You have sung a romantic song
María y Tu han cantado una canción romántica
|Adding an Article, an Adjective and a Noun
a/una, romantic/romántica, song/canción
|Mary and You have sung a romantic song, wonderfully
María y Tu han cantado una canción romántica, maravillosamente
|Adding an Adverb
|Wow!, Mary and You have sung a romantic song, wonderfully, without rehearse
¡Guao!, María y Tu han cantado una canción romántica, maravillosamente, sin ensayar
|Adding an Interjection, a Preposition and a Verb
Wow/Guao, without/sin, rehearse/ensayar
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