The demonstrative pronouns are pronouns that denote degrees of proximity of objects in relation to the speaker and the listener.
Unlike English, where are concerned with only two degrees of proximity, three grades are used in Spanish.
I.e., in Spanish, in addition to the immediate closeness degree and the distant, used a third degree identified with an intermediate point of closeness.
The other noticeable difference and that we have seen in other grammatical concepts, is the existence of male and female gender exists also in the demonstrative pronouns.
The Demonstrative pronouns are the following:
- este, esta, esto, estos, estas → this, these: are used for closeness
- Este es muy listo → This is very smart
- Prefiero esta → I prefer this
- ese, esa, esos, esas → that, those: are used for medium distances
- De las tres casas, compré esa → From the three houses, I bought that
- Ese es mi hermano → That is my brother
- Esos son mis lapices → Those are my pencils
- aquel, aquella, aquellos, aquellas → that, those: are used for long distances:
- Aquel señor lo compró al contado → That man bought it cash
- Aquellas son mis primas → Those are my cousins
Illustrate these explanations by making a comparison table :
|Pronombres Demostrativos / Demonstrative Pronouns.|
|Distancia inmediata / Immediate Distance||Distancia Media / Medium Distance||Distancia Larga / Long Distance|
|Singular Masculino / Singular Masculine||este / this||ese / that||aquel / that|
|Singular Femenino / Singular Feminine||esta / this||esa / that||aquella / that|
|Plural Masculino / Plural Masculine||estos / these||esos / those||aquellos / those|
|Plural Femenino / Plural Feminine||estas / these||esas / those||aquellas / those|
Finally must mention the existence in Spanish of the indeterminate demonstrative pronouns, that are which use when not have required an or both of them variables (gender and number) of the noun to which corresponds the pronoun.
It is used for immediate distance: esto, for intermediate distance: eso and for long distance: aquello. To express the same idea in English, the word “it” is the most used, regardless of the distance, gender or number.
- ¿Qué es eso? → What is it?
- Soy capaz de leer aquello → I’m able to read it
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